|Electron: A Centenary Volume
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This book marks the centenary of the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson in 1897, one of the great turning points in the history of scientific ideas. In this book the discussion moves from the historical context of the discovery of the electron and its basic properties, to the Dirac equation, bonding in condensed matter, Fermi and non-Fermi liquids, quantum order, superconductivity, heavy, coherent and composite electrons, and the role of the electron in the cosmos, with each chapter being written by a leading figure in the field.
|The Electron: New Theory and Experiment (Fundamental Theories of Physics)
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The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electrodynamics have established the electron as the most well understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. The 1990 Electron Workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. These Proceedings describe the present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal. The Electron presents the latest theoretical and experimental work seeking to probe the as yet undiscovered secrets of this particle. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the zitterbewegung is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and so worthy of serious study both theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the zitterbewegung may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geometric structure in the theory that supports a zitterbewegung interpretation.
|Flash of the Cathode Rays: A History of J J Thomson's Electron
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Author: Per F. Dahl
The electron is fundamental to almost all aspects of modern life, controlling the behavior of atoms and how they bind together to form gases, liquids, and solids. Flash of the Cathode Rays: A History of J.J. Thomson's Electron presents the compelling story of the discovery of the electron and its role as the first subatomic particle in nature. The book traces the evolution of the concept of electrical charge, from the earliest glow discharge studies to the final cathode ray and oil drop experiments of J.J. Thomson and Robert Millikan. It also provides an overview of the history of modern physics up to the advent of the old quantum theory around 1920.
Consolidating scholarly material while incorporating new material discovered by the well-respected author, the book covers the continental and English race for the source of the cathode rays, culminating in Thomson's corpuscle in 1897. It explores the events leading to Millikan's unambiguous isolation of the electron and the simultaneous circumstances surrounding the birth of Ernest Rutherford's nuclear atom and the discovery of radioactivity in 1896. The author also focuses on the controversies over N-rays, Becquerel's positive electron, and the famous Ehrenhaft-Millikan dispute over subelectrons.
Scholarly yet accessible to those with basic physics knowledge, this book should be of interest to historians of science, professional scientists and engineers, teachers and students of physics, and general readers interested in the development of modern physics.
|Electron-Molecule Scattering and Photoionization (Physics of Atoms and Molecules)
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|Charge and Energy Transfer Dynamics in Molecular Systems
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Author: Volkhard May
This second edition is based on the successful concept of the first edition in presenting a unified perspective on molecular charge and energy transfer processes. The authors bridge the regimes of coherent and dissipative dynamics, thus establishing the connection between classic rate theories and modern treatments of ultrafast phenomena. The book serves as an introduction for graduate students and researchers.
Among the new topics of this second edition are
- semiclassical and quantum-classical hybrid formulations of molecular dynamics
- the basics of femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy
- electron transfer through molecular bridges and proteins
- multidimensional tunneling in proton transfer reactions
- two-exciton states and exciton annihilation in biological and nonbiological chromophore complexes
More illustrating examples as well as an enlarged reference list are added. A new chapter gives an introduction into the theory of laser pulse control of molecular transfer processes.
|J.J. Thompson And The Discovery Of The Electron
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Author: E. A. Davis
This historical survey of the discovery of the electron has been published to coincide with the centenary of the discovery. The text maps the life and achievements of J.J. Thomson, with particular focus on his ideas and experiments leading to the discovery. It describes Thomson's early years and education. It then considers his career at Cambridge, first as a fellow of Trinity, later as the head of the Cavendish Laboratory and finally as Master of Trinity and national spokesman for science. The core of the book is concerned with the work undertaken at the Cavendish, culminating in the discovery of "corpuscles", later named "electrons".; In the final two chapters, the immediate aftermath and implications of the work are described. These include the creation of the subject of atomic physics as well as the broader long term developments which can be traced from vacuum valves and the transistor through to the microelectronics revolution.
|Positron Beams And Their Applications
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Author: Paul Coleman
This book provides a coherent and comprehensive overview of the generation and application of mono-energetic positron beams. It has been written by acknowledged experts, at a level accessible to graduate students working, or planning to work, with positron beams, and to scientists in other areas who want to know something about the field. The book begins with a brief historical introduction and an overview of how positron beams are generated and transported. A description of the fate of slow positrons in gaseous and condensed matter, with reference to many of the fundamental measurements made possible by the advent of positron beams, is followed by a discussion on applications in the study of solid surfaces, defect profiling in subsurface regions, interfaces and thin films, and the probing of bulk properties in novel ways. The book ends with a look at the future, considering the prospects for intense positron beams and their potential for further research.
|Elastic and Inelastic Scattering in Electron Diffraction and Imaging (NATO Asi Series)
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Author: Zhong-lin Wang
This unique volume provides comprehensive coverage of the theories and techniques of elastic and inelastic electron diffraction and imaging as well as their applications in quantitative structure determination using transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The author summarizes principles, techniques, and applications in his discussions of thermal diffusely scattered, valence-loss, and atomic inner-shell scattered electrons in compositional sensitive imaging.
|Electron Correlation Dynamics in Atomic Collisions (Cambridge Monographs on Atomic, Molecular and Chemical Physics)
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Author: J. H. McGuire
Brand: Brand: Cambridge University Press
This graduate/research level text introduces the theory of multi-electron transitions in atomic, molecular and optical physics, emphasizing the emerging topic of dynamic electron correlation. The book begins with an overview of simple binomial probabilities, classical scattering theory, quantum scattering and correlation, followed by the theory of single electron transition probabilities. Multiple electron transition probabilities are then treated in detail. Various approaches to multiple electron transitions are covered including the independent electron approximation, useful statistical methods and perturbation expansions treating correlation in both weak and strong limits. The dynamics of electron correlation are strongly emphasized. The text contains a comprehensive summary of data for few and many-electron transitions in atoms and molecules, including transitions on different atomic centers, fast ion-atom and electron-atom interactions, and recent observations using synchrotron radiation. Emphasis is given to methods that may be used by nonspecialists.
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|Electron Emission in Heavy Ion-Atom Collisions (Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics)
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Author: Nikolaus Stolterfoht
Brand: Brand: Springer
Electron EM reviews the theoretical and experimental work of the last 30 years on continuous electron emission in energetic ion-atom collisions. High incident energies for which the projectile is faster than the mean orbital velocity of the active electron are considered. Emphasis is placed on the interpretation of ionization mechanisms. They are interpreted in terms of Coulomb centers associated with the projectile and target nuclear fields which strongly interact with the outgoing electron. General properties of the two-center electron emission are analyzed. Particular attention is given to screening effects. A brief overview of multiple ionization processes is also presented. The survey concludes with a complete compilation of experimental studies of ionization cross sections.
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